Mixed Reality and Resilience in Tourism




Mixed Reality, Resilience, Tourism, Tanzania


The orientation towards a resilient future for the tourism sector is paramount particularly due to the effects of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) global pandemic which include travel restrictions, social distancing and lockdowns. Existing technologies such as mixed reality allows individuals to see and experience the vicinity around them by blending the physical and virtual worlds but there is limited literature on mixed reality and resilience in tourism. Hence, to extend the scope of the study, this paper’s main objective is to explore mixed reality and resilience in tourism and specifically to explore the relationship between the use of mixed reality and resilient future in tourism within the context of Tanzania. The adopted methodology is the literature review method using integrated literature review approach to gather relevant information to address the objective of this paper. Content analysis supplemented the literature review method. The key findings revealed that the use of mixed reality is minimal in relation to resilient future in tourism thus adding literature in the phenomenon of resilience in tourism. Hence, the conclusion is that the usage of mixed reality can enhance a resilient future towards revamping Tanzania’s tourism sector. The practical implication is that the tourism practitioners should encourage the use of mixed reality in promotion efforts to ensure a resilient tourism sector.


Download data is not yet available.


African Development Bank. (2021). Africa Resilience Forum (AFR. Retrieved 29 October 2021, from https://www.afdb.org/en/events/africa-resilience-forum-arf2021

Africa Renewal. (2020). Tourism in Africa: Virtual safaris kick in as countries slowly open to tourists. Retrieved 29 October 2021, from https://www.un.org/africarenewal/web-features/coronavirus/tourism-africa-virtual-safaris-kick-countries-prepare-reopen-tourists

Akaslan, D. (2020). Designing and implementing a virtual reality application for language learning. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Virtual Reality, 44. Sanliurfa, Turkey: Harran University.

Akaslan, D., Balak, M. V., & Ernst, F. B. (2020). Designing and implementing virtual reality glasses. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Virtual Reality, 36. Sanliurfa, Turkey: Harran University.

American Psychological Association. (2020). Resilience. Retrieved 29 October 2022, from https://dictionary.apa.org/resilience

Buultjens, J., Ratnayake, I., & Gnanapala, A. (2017). Sri Lankan tourism development and implications for resilience. In R. Butler (Ed.), Tourism and resilience (pp. 83–95). Wallingford: CABI.

Camprubi, R., & Coromina, L. (2016). Content analysis in tourism research. Tourism Management Perspectives, 18, 134–140.

Cantoni, L. (2018). Heritage and sustainable tourism. The role and challenge of information and communication technologies. In M. Gravari-Barbas & L. Cantoni (Eds.), Silvia De Ascaniis (pp. 68–74). Tourism Management at UNESCO World Heritage Sites.

Chen, H., Huang, X., & Li, Z. (2020). A content analysis of Chinese news coverage on COVID-19 and tourism. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–8.

Cheng, M., Edwards, D., Darcy, S., & Redfern, K. (2016). A tri-method approach to a review of adventure tourism literature: Bibliometric analysis, content analysis, and a quantitative systematic literature review. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Review, 42(60), 997–1020.

Davida, S., & Cantoni, L. (2015). Co-design of eTourism application. The Case of Ilha de Mozambique. Enter eTourism Conference 2015.

Debandi, F., Lacoviello, R., Messina, A., Montagnuolo, M., Manuri, F., Sanna, A., & Zappia, D. (2018). Enhancing cultural tourism by a mixed reality application for outdoor navigation and information browsing using immersive devices. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 364. Retrieved from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/364/1/012048

Dewasiri, N. J., K., W. B. Y., & Azeez, A. A. (2018). Mixed Methods in Finance Research: The Rationale and Research Designs. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 17, 1–13.

Duriau, V. J., Reger, R. K., & Pfarrer, M. D. (2007). A content analysis of the content analysis literature in organization studies. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 5–34.

East African Community (EAC). (2021). 1st EAC Regional Tourism EXPO. Retrieved 13 February 2023, from https://www.eac.int/news-and-media/calendar-of-events/event/791-1st-eac-regional-tourism-expo

Fabry, N., & Zegni, S. (2019). Resilience tourist destinations and governance: An analytical framework. Retrieved 13 February 2023, from https://hal.science/hal-02070497/document

Fadzli, F. E., Ismail, A. W., Talib, R., Alias, R. A., & Ashari, Z. M. (2020). MR-Deco: Mixed reality application for interior planning and designing. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 979. Retrieved from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/979/1/012010

Fullerton, D. J., Zhang, L. M., & Kleitman, S. (2021). An integrative process model of resilience in an academic context: Resilience resources, coping strategies, and positive adaptation. Retrieved from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0246000

Greene, S. (2015). Resilience building in Tanzania: Learning from experiences of institutional strengthening: Review of learning and early contributions to climate resilient development. Retrieved from https://pubs.iied.org/sites/default/files/pdfs/migrate/10129IIED.pdf

Hudson, R. (2010). Resilient regions in an uncertain world: wishful thinking or practical reality? Cambridge Journal of Regions, Economy and Society, 3(1), 11–25.

Iglesias, M. (2014). Digital technologies and foreign language learning in tourism studies. ELC Research Paper Series, 8, 15–26.

Jones, P., & Comfort, D. (2020). The role of resilience in research and planning in the tourism industry. Athens Journal of Tourism, 7(1), 1–16.

Kalbaska, N. (2014). National Tourism Organizations’ online training offer. Switzerland Travel Academy Case Study. ELC Research Paper Series, 8, 35–44.

Karunarathne, A. C. I. D., Ranasinghe, J. P. R. C., Sammani, U. G. O., & Perera, K. J. T. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic operations and resilience: Stakeholders’ perspective in Sri Lanka. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 13(3), 369–382.

Kondracki, N. L., Wellman, N. S., Fada, R. D., & Amundson, D. R. (2002). Content analysis: Review of methods and their applications in Nutrition Education. Soc. Nutr. Educ, 34, 224–230.

Lai, Y., & Cai, W. (2023). Enhancing post-COVID-19 work resilience in hospitality: A micro-level crisis management framework. Tourism and Hospitality Research, 23(1), 88–100. Retrieved from https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/14673584221075182

Lindsay-Smith, G., Pyke, J., Nguyen, V., Shaikh, S., Gamage, A., & de Lcay, T. (2021). Building the resilience of tourism destinations to disasters: The 2020 Victorian Bushfires ad COVID-19 Pandemic. Retrieved from Victoria University website: https://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/victoria-university-building-the-resilienceof-tourism-destinations-to-disasters-summary.pdf

Miralbell, O., Cantoni, L., & Kalbaska, N. (2014). The role of e-learning applications within the tourism sector. ELC Research Paper Series, 8, 04–05.

Mkwizu, K. H. (2020). Digital marketing and tourism: opportunities for Africa. International Hospitality Review, 34(1), 05–12.

Mkwizu, K. H. (2021b, November). Augmented reality and tourism. The 3rd International Conference on Virtual Reality (VR2021). Sanliurfa, Turkey.

Mkwizu, K. H. (2021a, November). Augmented reality and destinations in Africa: An ABCDE Approach. The 3rd International Conference on Virtual Reality (VR2021). Sanliurfa, Turkey: November.

Mkwizu, K. H. (2021c, November). Re-defining domestic tourism in the ‘new normal’. A literature review. The 3rd Africa-Asia Dialogue Network (AADN) International Conference on Advances in Business Management and Electronic Commerce Research (AADNIC-ABMECR). Ganzhou, Jiangxi, China.

Mkwizu, K. H., & Kimeto, J. C. (2022). Challenges and Strategies for managing Customer Services Education and Tourism in the Post-COVID-19 pandemic: A Comparative Study of Tanzania and Kenya. Education@ETMA, 1(3), 13–26. Retrieved from https://educationatetma.etma-india.in/index.php/journal/article/view/25

Mkwizu, K. H. (2023, February). Africa and the Belt and Road Initiative: Opportunities for Tourism. The 7th Global Research Network Belt and Road Initiative Conference 2023. Nairobi, Kenya.

Noorashid, N., & Chin, W. L. (2021). Coping with the COVID-19: The resilience and transformation of community-based tourism in Brunei Darussalam. Sustainability, 13, 8618.

Ntounis, N., Parker, C., Skinner, H., Steadman, C., & Warnaby, G. (2021). Tourism and Hospitality Industry during the Covid-19 pandemic: Evidence from England. Current Issues in Tourism, 1–14.

Orchiston, C., Prayag, G., & Brown, C. (2016). Organizational resilience in the tourism sector. Research Notes and Reports. Annals of Tourism Research, 56, 128–163.

Permatasari, P. A., Qohar, A. A., & Rachman, A. F. (2020). From web 1.0 to web 4.0: The digital heritage platforms for UNESCO’s heritage properties in Indonesia. Archaeology Review, 11(23), 75–93.

Qui, T. C. T., Nguyen, T. H. D., Cheok, A. D., Teo, S. L., Xu, K., Zhou, Z., & Le Nam Thang, Y. L. (2020). MagicLand: A 3D Human capture mixed reality system for museum experiences. Re-Thinking Technology in Museums: Towards a New Understanding of People’s Experience in Museums, 71. Retrieved from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1757-899X/979/1/012010/pdf

Rahman, K. T., & Arif, M. Z. U. (2021). Impacts of Binge-Watching on Netflix during the COVID-19 pandemic. South Asian Journal of Marketing, 2(1), 97–112.

Setthachotsombut, N., & Suaiam, G. (2020). The resilience development for the Entrepreneurs Tourism Sector (RDETS) from 2019 Coronavirus crisis in Thailand. Retrieved 29 August 2021, from https://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_52_vol_9_2__2020_thailand.pdf

Sharma, R. (2020). Pedagogy and self-directed learning through virtual world. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Virtual Reality, 15. Sanliurfa, Türkiye.

Sharma, D. D., Thomas, A., & Paul, J. (2021). Reviving tourism industry post COVID-19: A resilience-based framework. Tourism Management Perspective, 37, 100786. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7771910/

Siang, T. G., Aziz, K. A., & Ahmad, Z. (2021). Augmented reality: The game changer of travel and tourism industry in 2025. Augmented Reality in Tourism, Museums and Heritage, 195–210.

Statista. (2021). Mixed reality (MR) market size worldwide in 2017, 2018 and 2025. Retrieved 29 October 2021, from https://www.statista.com/statistics/897595/world-mixed-reality-market-value/

Suneeth, B. G., Kashyap, S., Reddy, G. M., & Kaushal, V. (2021). Resilience Adaptations in Tourism Education for the Post-COVID-19 Era – A Study of India. In V. G. Gowreesunkar, S. W. Maingi, H. Roy, & R. Micera (Eds.), Tourism Destination Management in a Post-Pandemic Context (Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations) (pp. 291–302). Emerald Publishing Limited, Bingley.

The World Bank. (2021). Tanzania economic update: How to transform tourism into a more sustainable, resilient and inclusive sector. Retrieved 28 August 2021, from https://www.worldbank.org/en/country/tanzania/publication/tanzania-economic-update-how-to-transform-tourism-into-a-more-sustainable-resilient-and-inclusive-sector

Trade for Development News. (2020). Responsible tourism in Tanzania, recommendations for COVID-19 recovery. Retrieved 28 August 2021, from https://trade4devnews.enhancedif.org/en/op-ed/responsible-tourism-tanzania-recommendations-covid-19-recovery

Villarejo, L., González, F., Miralbell, O., & Gomis, J. M. (2014). Introducing Augmented Reality in Cultural Heritage Studies. ELC Research Paper Series, 8, 06–14.

Windle, G. (2011). What is resilience? A review and concept analysis. Reviews in Clinical Gerontology, 21(2), 152–169.

Zakhariv, P. V., Kataeva, A. S., Kochkin, A. S., Eremin, A. M., & Markidonov, A. V. (2020). Some aspects of using mixed reality technologies in the training of physics teachers. Journal of Physics: Conference Series, 1691. Retrieved from https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/1691/1/012015

Zhang, P., Yu, H., Xu, L., Guo, W., & Shen, M. (2023). Synergistic relationship or not? Understanding the resilience and efficiency of the tourism economy: Evidence from Hainan province, China. Environment Development and Sustainability. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10668-022-02858-7



How to Cite

Mkwizu, K. H. (2023). Mixed Reality and Resilience in Tourism. International Journal of Advanced Virtual Reality, 1(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7677862



Literature Review Articles
Received 2022-02-08
Accepted 2022-02-26
Published 2023-02-15